Since the establishment of the World Trade Organization (WTO) it appears to the same extent that African countries have not benefited as other developed economies. Compared with the rest where the international trade in agricultural commodities has increased, the same cannot be said for Africa,
Meeting the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPM) and the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) requirements is an inability of developing countries. Mainly lacking the necessary understanding and skills on the complete spectrum of activities that make up Pest Risk Analysis (PRA) is a hindrance. This does not allow them to competently make market access bids.
As a result, the developed, high value markets, particularly in the West, often remain closed on quarantine grounds.
A Standard Is Required
To facilitate trade and increase transparency a standard is needed. The strengthening compliance of African countries with ISPMs will facilitate the marketing of their commodities. For determining operational activities it will require a clearer understanding of the basis.
In particular, as a basis of approved legislation there is a need to use technically sound judgements. Alongside the production of operational manuals and procedures. There is a demand for the pre-emptive research and development on identified pests’ threats.
The expansion of trade in food and agricultural commodities and improvements in quarantine systems has to be explored and discussed.
A good organization and networking of all stakeholders involved in crop production and quarantine must also be required. It requires a reduction in the movement of plant pests into new environments and areas of production.
Coordination Must Be Improved
There is a need for agencies to improve the coordination overall. It is required in order to reinforce and supplement other plant health capacity building in the continent. By putting emphasis on plant health information exchange network for African countries will be beneficial for all parties concerned.
Moreover, weeds have become severe constraints in Africa. Major crops are affected because of this. The efficacy of available means to control them is also minimal. It has become economically very important as the damage it is causing on major crops by noxious weeds is increasing. Typical losses vary from 15-25% in some countries. There are much more severe in others and sometimes result in a total crop failure. Control strategies have centered on agronomic practices. The use of herbicides; although a success, has been marginal and other options must be undertaken.
To place these control processes within a framework that is compatible with current agricultural practices has been explored and considered as an urgent need.
Control Methods Reevaluation
The reevaluation of control methods is needed to put things updated and in place.
As an expressed concern at the alarming rate of spread and distribution of noxious weeds in Africa they have designed a system to prevent the introduction into the continent of non-indigenous invasive plants. The prevention of the spread of newly introduced invasive plants within Africa.
It has become imperative for the establishment of a panel in making a list of Invasive Alien Plants.
Governments, by imposing stringent regulations based on health, safety and environmental considerations, have realized their role in protecting their population’s health and safety. This has resulted to the emergence of consumers all over the world to become conscious of quality and at the same time demand what is proper.
Through application of proper or well-designed food control systems (exports and imports) quality and safety can be assured.
Still, African countries find it difficult to comply with quality measures. Most governments have emphasized on development and strengthening of import control systems. It is quite important to protect their populations and to prevent dumping of inferior quality products into their countries.